The Insider

By Tony Bertuca
September 28, 2020 at 5:00 AM

The Senate must pass the House's stopgap continuing resolution by Thursday, or the federal government will shut down. Meanwhile, senior Pentagon officials are scheduled to speak at several different events this week.


The ComDef 2020 conference begins, featuring Pentagon acquisition chief Ellen Lord and other senior DOD officials, and runs through Thursday.


The Heritage Foundation hosts a virtual event on U.S. shipyards "in crisis."

The House Armed Services Committee holds a hearing on U.S. defense posture changes in Europe.

The Brookings Institution hosts a discussion on the future of U.S. policy in Afghanistan.


The Senate Armed Services readiness and management subcommittee holds a "supply chain integrity" hearing with Pentagon acquisition chief Ellen Lord.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies hosts a virtual discussion on the Pentagon's service industrial base.

By Sara Sirota
September 25, 2020 at 2:50 PM

The Air Force is preparing an environmental impact statement on plans to dispose the legacy Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile system and deploy its replacement, the Ground Based Strategic Deterrent, according to a notice posted on the Federal Register today.

The service is first inviting public feedback over the next 45 days to determine the scope of its assessment and issues the EIS should focus on. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Air Force will not hold face-to-face meetings.

The service later anticipates publishing a draft statement for public comment in spring 2022, followed by a final EIS that will be released one year later.

Disposal of the Minuteman III will occur at Hill Air Force Base, UT, Utah Test and Training Range, UT, Camp Guernsey, WY and Camp Navajo, AZ. GBSD deployment will take place at Warren AFB, WY, Malmstrom AFB, MT and Minot AFB, ND.

“During the transition from Minuteman III to GBSD, the two weapon systems would be partially operated and maintained concurrently for several years; therefore, the EIS also will analyze the overlapping actions and resulting impacts of conducting aspects of the programs in parallel,” the Air Force’s notice states.

“Expected environmental impacts are assumed to result from ground disturbing activities associated with construction of the GBSD system,” the document adds. “It is anticipated that these environmental impacts, will be mitigated to the extent practical or avoided where possible.”

Further, the EIS will assess the environmental impact of an alternative scenario in which the Air Force continues maintaining and operating Minuteman III and does not deploy GBSD.

By Sara Sirota
September 25, 2020 at 2:33 PM

The Air Force has awarded Boeing a $2.2 billion contract for guaranteed minimum Lot 15 production of the precision-guided Small Diameter Bomb I.

The agreement will have a five-year ordering period and provide munitions, containers and carriages for Defense Department and foreign military sale customers, according to a contract notice the Pentagon released Thursday. Foreign customers include Australia, Belgium, Israel, Japan, Korea, Netherlands and Norway.

The Air Force obligated $247.5 million at the time of the award and while DOD’s announcement doesn’t disclose a procurement quantity, the service’s latest budget documents show the fiscal year 2020 SDB I deal is expected to cover 6,878 munitions for the Air Force and 922 for FMS partners.

The documents also indicate the FY-20 contract is intended to account for the last major procurement quantity before dropping to no more than 2,500 munitions per budget cycle across the future years defense program.

“The Department of the Air Force had increased production in previous fiscal years to replace depleted stockpiles, but as we approach desired inventory levels, procurement is being reduced to match operational need,” service acquisition executive Will Roper told the House Armed Services tactical air and land forces subcommittee earlier this year.

By John Liang
September 25, 2020 at 2:28 PM

This Friday INSIDER Daily Digest has news on the Air Force's follow-on MQ-9 Reaper effort, Space Force launch activities, the Navy's future force structure and more.

The Air Force kicked off market research into MQ-Next with an initial request for information in June after revealing in its fiscal year 2021 budget proposal a few months before its plan to stop buying new Reapers after FY-20, earlier than expected:

AFMC considers releasing second RFI for MQ-9 replacement

Air Force Materiel Command is considering sending industry a second request for information to support market research into the multiple roles an MQ-9 Reaper replacement, or MQ-Next, can perform as a node within the joint all-domain command and control infrastructure.

The Space Force's Program Executive Officer for Space Lt. Gen. John Thompson said in a press release this week that it "welcome[s] SpaceX's innovative reuse into the National Security Space Launch program":

Space Force to fly previously used SpaceX boosters for the first time in two upcoming GPS III missions

The Space Force announced today it has reached an agreement with SpaceX to launch two future GPS III missions with previously flown boosters -- the first National Security Space Launch missions to fly with a re-used first stage.

The Hudson Institute recently issued a draft report on the Navy's future force structure:

Enlisted by DEPSECDEF, Hudson proposes fleet lighter on carriers, roughly 140 unmanned vessels

Under the force structure suggested by a group of third-party analysts enlisted by the deputy defense secretary, the Navy would build a fleet consisting of nine aircraft carriers and more than 100 unmanned ships while projecting an effectively flat budget for the foreseeable future.

Inside Defense this week interviewed Bill Falk, Sikorsky's program manager for the CH-53K helicopter:

Sikorsky: CH-53K production going smoothly despite pandemic

Production for the CH-53K helicopter is progressing on schedule despite the COVID-19 pandemic, prime contractor Sikorsky says.

Some big defense contractor M&A news:

Amentum to acquire DynCorp International

Amentum has agreed to acquire DynCorp International, which would create a $6 billion contractor.

Under Marine Corps Commandant Gen. David Berger's latest planning guidance, released earlier this year, the service will focus on littoral combat and move away from the legacy capabilities used to fight ground wars:

Berger worried pandemic-related budget issues could slow force redesign

Marine Corps Commandant Gen. David Berger said Thursday he is concerned that funding constraints caused by the coronavirus pandemic could slow the service's force redesign efforts.

An indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity deal signed last month enables countries to purchase a common configuration of the F-16 fighter jet from Lockheed Martin's latest Block 70/72 production line that's based on the advanced Viper variant:

USAF, Lockheed negotiating lower F-16 Block 70/72 price for next delivery orders

The Air Force and Lockheed Martin have begun negotiating a lower unit cost for the next batch of commoditized F-16 fighter jets they anticipate supplying through last month's novel foreign military sale contract to a new group of customers, sources tell Inside Defense.

By Jaspreet Gill
September 25, 2020 at 1:28 PM

YUMA PROVING GROUND, AZ -- Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy said integrated tactical network sets being developed by the Network Cross-Functional Team will vastly improve the service's network capability and resilience, following a Project Convergence demonstration here.

The Army is working on developing a resilient network that will be essential to everything the service is doing, McCarthy and Army Futures Command chief Gen. Mike Murray told reporters this week. During the Project Convergence demonstrations, the service learned it needs to work on scaling the network for both ground-to-ground and air-to-ground operations.

"The network, in particular, there's capability drops in fiscal [years] [2021] and [2023] that are going to be the upgrades that vastly improve our network capability and resilience," McCarthy told reporters yesterday. The service "learned about a lot of the things that they need to focus on . . . I looked at yesterday as a good thing."

The Network CFT in June announced it had completed a final design review for CS21 and was ready to start fielding equipment to four infantry brigades. CS21 equipment includes single-channel radios, tactical assault kits, tethered drones and more capabilities.

During the Project Convergence demonstration in Yuma, the Network CFT leveraged currently fielded radio and networking capabilities, which included a mix of artificial intelligence, machine learning and autonomous technologies, and demonstrated technologies under consideration for inclusion in CS23. Those are low Earth orbit and medium Earth orbit satellite communications links and Tactical Data Fabric efforts.

For example, CS21 program of record and commercial-off-the-shelf radios were used to provide the service with a mesh network that enabled information exchanges between ground and aerial weapon platforms, sensors and decision-making agents on the ground. Data was passed to the command post through a mid-tier link during the demonstrations.

McCarthy told reporters the Army during the experiment learned what can be improved with the capability sets.

The service knows what it needs "to work on or to fix for Capability [Set] 21 and 23," he said, adding: "I was encouraged."

By Justin Doubleday
September 24, 2020 at 4:19 PM

The Defense Department's spending on artificial intelligence and machine learning contracts continues to expand and is now projected to surpass $1 billion this fiscal year and to double within the next few years, according to a new analysis.

DOD's contract spending on AI and ML is projected to reach $1.4 billion in fiscal year 2020, up 43 percent from the $973 million obligated in FY-19, according to market research published by Bloomberg Government analyst Chris Cornillie.

Cornillie said the true number is likely higher due to classified contracts as well as a lack of publicly available data on how much spending is occurring within consortia-run other transaction agreements.

"Those contracts are black boxes," Cornillie told Inside Defense.

DOD contract spending on AI is expected to continue its steady rise to $2.8 billion by FY-23, according to the analysis.

So far, U.S. Special Operations Command is the Pentagon's "top AI investor," according to the research, as it has spent $620 million on the technology since 2016. SOCOM's $885 million task order to Booz Allen Hamilton in July 2018 for the Enterprise Machine Learning Analytics and Persistent Services (eMAPS) "is the largest AI/ML contract yet issued by the federal government," according to the research.

Meanwhile, the Pentagon's Joint Artificial Intelligence Center "is still in the early stages" of driving DOD's AI spending, Cornillie said.

The center has awarded two large contracts this year. In May, it awarded Booz Allen Hamilton a potential five-year, $800 million for its "Joint Warfighting" project. Meanwhile, it awarded Deloitte Consulting a four-year, $106 million contract to be the prime integrator for the "Joint Common Foundation" program.

Among vendors, Booz Allen Hamilton is the top AI and ML contractor for the defense sector, according to the analysis. It shows the firm has raked in nearly $600 million in AI and ML contract obligations since 2016.

ECS Federal is second among defense vendors, as the company has been awarded two contracts for the Pentagon's "Project Maven" effort. Less well-known small businesses, including firms like Dzyne Technologies, Koniag, Modern Technology Solutions, and Prelaten, have won a collective $780 million in AI and ML obligations since 2016, according to the report.

The Pentagon's requested funding for AI-related programs is also growing. While DOD presented its official budget request for AI in fiscal year 2021 as $1.1 billion, "this figure likely undercounts [the] full scope of AI activity," according to the analysis.

The research found the Pentagon is seeking a combined $5.2 billion in FY-21 for 319 research and development programs with "some AI/ML component," up from $4 billion in DOD's FY-20 budget request.

After appropriations and transfers, Cornillie's analysis notes DOD's FY-21 budget for AI and ML "could be even higher."

By Sara Sirota
September 24, 2020 at 2:56 PM

The Pentagon has announced a new list of contractors that have received indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contracts worth up to $950 million to support the Air Force's Advanced Battle Management System program.

The companies will compete along with dozens of other vendors that have already won IDIQ deals to demonstrate and mature joint all-domain command and control technology for potential integration into the ABMS infrastructure.

According to a Defense Department notice Wednesday, the Air Force has awarded new contracts to: Amazon Web Services, Anduril Industries, Colorado Engineering, Edgy Bees, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Global C2 Integration Technologies, General Atomics, Grey Wolf Aerospace, Kratos, LinQuest Corp, Oddball, Red River Technology, SES Government Solutions, Venator Solutions and VivSoft Technologies.

Although they are eligible to win anywhere between $1,000 and $950 million over the next five years, the Air Force's current plan is to invest about $3.2 billion in the ABMS program between fiscal year 2021 and FY-25 and it's unclear how much of that funding is specifically intended for distribution to industry partners.

Occasional on-ramp exercises throughout the year allow companies to demonstrate their offerings for combatant commanders, who can decide if they're not interested or if they want developers to mature, alter or even immediately hand over the products for operational use.

The two most recent events occurred in partnership with U.S. Northern Command and U.S. Space Command, followed by U.S. Indo-Pacific Command. The Air Force is planning another in the coming months with U.S. European Command.

By Ashley Tressel
September 24, 2020 at 2:29 PM

The Army next week is hosting a virtual workshop for the Tactical Assault Kit, a situational awareness tool.

The TAK is "a map-based software application that enables coordination among thousands of users with features such as a position data, chat, mission planning and shared overlays," according to a press release posted yesterday.

"The Tactical Assault Kit virtual offsite will offer an opportunity for stakeholders from across the Department of Defense (DOD), federal agencies and industry to exchange information and identify critical needs," the release states. "The event will offer tracks for software development, programmatic updates and training on TAK platforms."

The TAK Product Center, a part of the Army's C5ISR Center, which itself is a component of Army Futures Command, is hosting the workshop.

"TAK is an extensible platform, meaning that we give you a baseline and based on your mission requirements you can build on that baseline to bridge capability gaps," Mark Roberts, the TAK Product Center's deputy director, said in the release.

"Anyone who has a job requirement to display point location information -- the military, DOD and federal agencies, state and local authorities, firefighters and emergency responders -- will benefit from these sessions," he said. "This is a great opportunity to give them a peek at what's being done around the TAK community."

Registration is open until Sept. 28 for the event, which will be held virtually Sept. 29 to Oct. 2.

By John Liang
September 24, 2020 at 2:23 PM

This Thursday INSIDER Daily Digest has news on the Army's Project Convergence effort, Navy unmanned maritime systems, Air Force GPS navigation improvements and more.

Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy and Army Futures Command Gen. Mike Murray spoke to the media this week during a Project Convergence demonstration in Arizona:

Army officials place emphasis on network and people in first Project Convergence experiment

YUMA PROVING GROUND, AZ -- The Army recently wrapped up its first Project Convergence sensor-to-shooter learning campaign that explores the service's role in the Air Force-led Joint All-Domain Command and Control effort, with senior officials stressing the need for a unified, resilient network and having the right people to contribute to the Joint Force.

Inside Defense this week interviewed Navy Capt. Pete Small, program manager for unmanned maritime systems:

Navy building three-part 'foundation' to maintain its future unmanned vehicles

The Navy this year is laying the foundational efforts to maintain its envisioned fleet of unmanned surface and undersea vessels by combining a multiple award contract for hardware components and a new prototype for integrating autonomy software, a Navy officer leading the efforts told Inside Defense.

The Navigation Technology Satellite-3 experiment is slated to launch in 2022 and could improve the resiliency of the current GPS constellation:

Experimental NTS-3 PNT capability could provide options to mitigate Ligado interference

An experimental positioning navigation and timing capability being developed by L3Harris and the Air Force Research Laboratory could offer options to mitigate the impact of GPS signal interference --including the projected disruption from Ligado Network's controversial plan to field a fifth-generation wireless network in the L-band.

Inside Defense interviewed the chief executive of Science Applications International Corp. this week:

SAIC chief expects more flexibility in workplace to outlast COVID-19 pandemic

The chief executive of Science Applications International Corp. anticipates that the ongoing coronavirus pandemic will create lasting changes in the workplace.

Some missile defense news:

Boeing teamed with General Atomics, Aerojet Rocketdyne for NGI bid

Boeing today disclosed that it is teamed with General Atomics and Aerojet Rocketdyne for the Next Generation Interceptor, offering what a company official said is "freshness" to the Ground-based Midcourse Defense system modernization competition by pulling in two established defense industry suppliers that haven't previously had high-profile, missile defense accounts.

Air Force acquisition chief Will Roper met this week with the head of Air Mobility Command, Gen. Jacqueline Van Ovost, and focused largely on KC-46 progress and the future of autonomous refueling:

Air Force to study options for future autonomous refueling architecture

The Air Force is planning formal studies to consider options for a future autonomous tanking architecture that could include a mix of small, remotely piloted refueling aircraft and larger, more survivable tankers.

The Air Force has been testing a series of joint all-domain command and control technologies to demonstrate the Advanced Battle Management System internet of military things infrastructure:

Roper aiming to transition fully operational ABMS tech starting at next on-ramp

Air Force acquisition executive Will Roper is looking to field Advanced Battle Management System capabilities with full operational use across combatant commands starting at the fourth on-ramp in Europe, he told reporters today.

Last but certainly not least, some cyber defense news from our colleagues at Inside Cybersecurity:

CMMC program faces scrutiny on Capitol Hill over accreditation body activities

Rep. Jim Langevin (D-RI), a cybersecurity leader in Congress, says he is monitoring the Defense Department's work to "operationalize" the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification program, which is facing criticism over the rollout of the accreditation process for assessors.

By Justin Katz
September 24, 2020 at 10:10 AM

Naval Sea Systems Command plans to hold a virtual industry day Oct. 6 and 7, according to a public Navy notice.

"The NAVSEA [Small Business Industry Day] will provide a targeted forum for interested small businesses to hear from senior Navy leadership, program executive offices and directorates about various NAVSEA programs, facilitating an enhanced understanding of NAVSEA's programs and strategic direction and providing for prime and subcontracting opportunities for small businesses," according to the notice published today.

The services have taken up virtual industry days in recent month as way to continue discussions with defense contractors while combatting the coronavirus pandemic. Some officials have noted the virtual events have had better attendance than in-person events due to a lower bar to entry.

By Ashley Tressel
September 23, 2020 at 4:19 PM

The Army's Maneuver Capabilities Development and Integration Directorate has received approval from Army Futures Command on future electrification requirements, the directorate announced this week.

The MCDID's Maneuver Requirements Division is in charge of developing the requirements document for tactical and combat vehicle electrification, the directorate said in a press release.

The document is "the overarching requirement for reducing the Army's tactical and combat vehicles' reliance on fossil fuels," the release states.

"The requirement also aims to increase operational reach across all maneuver formations through electric propulsion, which offers a variety of operational and tactical benefits. These include the potential to double operational duration, implement silent mobility, increase silent watch, and potentially reduce the Army's logistical burden by nearly half when fully implemented."

The Army is hosting a virtual industry day on Oct. 20 to fill in industry on its electrification initiatives in partnership with CALSTART, an organization that focuses on clean technology transportation initiatives, according to the release.

By Justin Katz
September 23, 2020 at 3:23 PM

The Navy's program office for unmanned maritime systems has not yet seen major schedule delays due to the coronavirus, but the pandemic has added challenges and costs associated with on-water testing, according to the officer in charge.

"We haven't been hugely impacted from a schedule perspective, but it has added strain and burden and complications in attempting to stay on schedule while implementing coronavirus mitigations," Capt. Pete Small, unmanned maritime systems program manager, told Inside Defense in a Sept. 18 interview.

Small said his office has several vehicle programs moving forward with on-water testing such as the Mine Countermeasure Unmanned Surface Vessel and work with the Strategic Capabilities Office's Project Overlord prototype.

"That involves teams of people in relative close proximity to each other to operate and deploy those unmanned systems . . . [or] people onboard the vessels in relative close proximity to each other, so we have had to work through mitigations to keep those people safe," he said.

Part of the increased costs comes from personnel needing to quarantine for up to two weeks while traveling to and from test sites, Small said.

How much the coronavirus pandemic has affected individual Navy programs and exercises has varied on a case-by-case basis.

Inside Defense reported last month a full-rate production decision for the Amphibious Combat Vehicle had to be postponed due to "temporary closures and reduced staffing" at test sites.

The Navy last month also held its biennial Rim of the Pacific exercise despite all of the services canceling various exercises planned this year.

A Pentagon white paper obtained by Inside Defense in August estimated the programmatic issues caused by the pandemic between March 15 and June 15 would cost the Defense Department roughly $11 billion across the services; $4.7 billion of that money would be tied to the Navy.

By John Liang
September 23, 2020 at 1:45 PM

This Wednesday INSIDER Daily Digest features a new Center for Strategic and International Studies report on defense spending, a Defense Science Board report on U.S. military superiority, a Government Accountability Office report on the W87-1 warhead obtained by Inside Defense and more.

A new Center for Strategic and International Studies report identifies a cyclical, historical pattern in the ratio of spending on procurement compared to research and development:

CSIS report finds decline in ratio of procurement spending to R&D spending

A new report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies finds the ratio of spending on procurement compared to research and development is on the decline, a discovery it notes could have "business-altering dynamics."

After nearly two years of work, the Defense Science Board has completed its study on "The Future of U.S. Military Superiority," though only an executive summary was publicly released this week:

Science advisory group wants DOD to boost focus on 'Gray Zone' conflicts

An influential Pentagon advisory board is recommending the United States be "more aggressive" with adversaries like China and Russia in non-military "Gray Zone" conflicts that require new capabilities, especially in the cyber realm.

Document: DSB executive summary of a report on the future of U.S. military superiority

A prototype Navy effort called the Rapid Autonomy Integration Lab is in the news this week:

RAIL will create 'plenty' of opportunity for industry, says Navy unmanned program manager

The officer leading a prototype effort designed to incorporate new autonomy behaviors on unmanned vehicles says he envisions multiple opportunities for industry to get involved as integrators, testers and network providers.

The assistant deputy commandant for combat development and integration at Marine Corps Development Command said this week that ground robotics systems are going to play a role in the force design process for the new Marine Littoral Regiment:

Marine Corps looking at high-level requirements for ground robotics

The Marine Corps is examining top-level requirements for ground robotics programs, Maj. Gen. Kevin Iiams said Tuesday.

A Government Accountability Office repor obtained by Inside Defense has found that the National Nuclear Security Administration is not properly studying the potential cost impacts of choosing optional yet expensive safety and security feature upgrades for the W87-1 warhead program:

GAO calls out NNSA's subpar planning for W87-1 design, plutonium needs

The Government Accountability Office has raised concerns that the National Nuclear Security Administration's W87-1 program -- potentially the most expensive warhead modernization effort since the end of the Cold War -- is neglecting best management practices when considering future design options and plutonium pit availability, according to previously undisclosed details from a classified report the watchdog completed in February.

Document: GAO report on NNSA's W87-1 design, plutonium needs

Navy acquisition chief Hondo Geurts spoke with reporters yesterday following his speech at Modern Day Marine, which was held virtually this year:

Geurts says Navy has spent $300 million in DPA funding on supply chain issues

The Navy has spent $300 million in Defense Production Act funding over the past three months to strengthen its supply chains, according to the service's acquisition executive.

By Aidan Quigley
September 23, 2020 at 12:50 PM

The Marine Corps will not be asking Congress for more funding as it pursues its force re-design, Commandant Gen. David Berger said today.

Berger's Commandant's Planning Guidance, which was released earlier this year, calls for the service to invest in naval integration with lower costs and more lethal platforms. Under the guidance, the Marine Corps will move away from legacy capabilities used to fight land wars.

Berger said during this year's Modern Day Marine exposition that he walked the chairmen and ranking members of the defense-related committees in the House and Senate through his force re-design plan.

"I told them, 'We're not asking for a nickel more,'" he said. "The Marine Corps is not asking for any end strength increase, any money increase. We are going to re-shape ourselves for the future from within."

Berger said the changes have gotten more support from Congress than he anticipated.

"They very much respected that we weren't coming there with a tin cup to ask for more from Congress," he said. "But, I told them, if we go down this path and get rid of certain pieces of equipment, we shrink the size of the Marine Corps in order to generate the money we need, and you take that money, we're going to be a smaller, older Marine Corps. That, you don't want."

So far, Berger said Congress and Defense Secretary Mark Esper have protected the service's budget.

"So far, it’s in the right place," he said. "But we will need to see in the next two, three, four years how this all plays out."

Berger said that the service had to make hard decisions about what equipment to divest from during its transition.

"I'm convinced, 100%, that the risk of not doing anything, of incrementally updating our current systems, is much, much greater," the general said.

The Army has been very supportive of the Marine Corps' shift, Berger said. The Marine Corps is planning on giving its M1 Abrams tank battalions to the Army as part of its divestment, he added.

By Sara Sirota
September 23, 2020 at 11:59 AM

The Air Force has tested the ability of new sensor and missile technology to thwart a fleet of small unmanned aerial systems while integrated with an emerging command-and-control network at the large-scale Apollyon exercise last month, the service revealed today.

The 96th Test Wing evaluated over 20 anti-drone systems -- including a successful live fire of an air defense missile -- during the event, which was held at Eglin Air Force Base, FL between Aug. 10 and Aug. 24, according to a notice published on the service's website.

These weapons were integrated with the Air Force's Multi-Environmental Domain Unmanned Systems Application -- a new network designed to perform counter-UAS C2 operations. The Army -- which is overseeing the Pentagon's efforts to come up with technology that can defeat drones -- intends to include MEDUSA among its capability choices once the network is interoperable with the Forward Area Air Defense C2 system.

The MEDUSA demonstration at the Apollyon exercise also served as a proof-of-concept for the Air Force's joint all-domain C2 ambitions.

"I believe this was just a sampler of what's coming for the test community once we start integration into a JADC2 environment," Capt. Joseph Haggberg, flight commander of the Apollyon planning team, said in the service's notice. "It was fantastic seeing nearly every sensor connected to any shooter through a common interface and C2 network which created multiple layers and options for sensing and protection."

The Air Force also developed anti-drone concepts of operations, tactics, techniques and procedures during the exercise. The Apollyon teams directed 431 UAS sorties and made 240 kinetic and non-kinetic defeats in total.